TOEIC Grammar Lesson - Could Have

toeic grammar Jul 30, 2023

How do we use COULD HAVE in English?

There are a variety of English grammar patterns that are tested on the TOEIC® exam. Past Modals like Could Have often appear in Part V and Part VI. The pattern here is could have followed by a past participle verb.

We use could have to show that something was possible in the past, but didn't happen.

  • I went to an Italian restaurant last night. I could have had pizza, but I had pasta.
  • Katie could have won the race, but she twisted her ankle during the final sprint.

We use could not have when we talk about something that was not possible in the past.

  • Thanks for your help. That desk was heavy and I couldn’t have moved it without you.
  • My flight was delayed, so I couldn't have made it to the meeting on time even if I had left earlier.

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👉 Keep in mind the best way to remember this or any vocabulary in English is to take the word or phrase write it in a sentence that's true for you or true in your world and then memorize your sentences.

👉 You can even take your sentences and write them in the comments below. I would love to see your examples.

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Add your example sentence(s) in the comments below